What is Stroke?
Stroke is a disorder of blood circulation in the brain. Like other parts of the body, the brain gets the blood supply from the blood vessels in order to maintain its normal function. Circulatory disorders may include:
- Ischemia, blood flow decreases or stops in some areas of the brain.
- Bleeding, usually bleeding occurs because the walls of blood vessels rupture.
This circulatory disorder results in impaired brain function, and when severe can result in the death of some brain cells (called infract).
Clinical Features of Stroke
The brain is the organ that participates in all body activities. These diverse tasks are performed by different parts of the brain. There are parts of the brain that play a role in moving fingers, limbs, feet and tongue. There is also a role in speaking, writing, singing, and seeing. When these parts of the brain are disturbed, then the task becomes disturbed.
The brain requires very much oxygen, when the oxygen supply is cut off for 8-10 seconds; there is a disruption of brain function. When the supply of oxygen is broken 6-8 minutes, then there is damage to the brain that cannot recover / settle. Factors that affect blood flow in the brain are the state of blood vessels, blood, and heart conditions. Arteries or arteries may be narrowed by the process of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or clogged by a blood clot. The thickening of the blood slows the flow of blood. Conversely on anemia or less blood, blood supply may also decrease. Cardiac abnormalities, when the heart rate is irregular and inefficient, then the bulk will decrease and result in reduced cerebral blood flow (ischemia). The diseased heart can also secrete a blood clot (embolus), which then gets caught in the blood vessels of the brain and results in ischemia.
In bleeding strokes or hemorrhagic strokes, blood comes out of the blood vessels resulting from the tearing of the blood vessel wall. This tear is caused due to weak blood vessel walls due to the process of atherosclerosis or due to congenital defects.
Various Stroke Symptoms
The main symptom of stroke is the onset of sudden neurological disorders. Stroke symptoms are initially lightweight can be heavy in a few hours / day. So the symptoms of a stroke should not be ignored, although mild. In order for stroke treatment can be done as early as possible, and then the various symptoms of stroke need to be recognized immediately.
Symptoms of stroke can vary, e.g. paralysis of the right half / left, half the body tingling or numbness, mouth / tongue when talking to not smooth, speech become unfamiliar, unable to understand other people’s talk, cannot read and Writing, difficulty swallowing chokes when eating / drinking, difficulty walking, unable to count, forgetfulness, impaired vision, uncoordinated movements, fainting, coma and many combinations of symptoms can occur.
Prevention and risk factors for stroke
Current stroke subscribers have made much progress, but disability rates and mortality rates remain high. Stroke risk factors; High blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes mellitus, polycythemia, high blood fat content, smoking, obesity, high uric acid levels, lack of exercise, alcoholics, drug use, oral contraceptives and age.
Prevention of stroke means eliminating risk factors and treating underlying diseases, such as when there is diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease, are treated and controlled regularly. Can also change lifestyle and diet by avoiding foods high in cholesterol, limiting salt intake, eating lots of fruits and vegetables, avoiding smoking, alcohol, and coffee, doing sports, avoiding obesity, and avoiding stress.
Treatment of Stroke in the acute phase
Patients are immediately taken to the hospital for optimal handling. The best when treatment can be done within the first 3 hours, after the onset of symptoms of stroke. The goal of treatment, to prevent stroke from continuing or recurring, to prevent disability, to prevent death, to prevent complications such as pneumonia, bladder inflammation and to treat other diseases that may affect the course of a stroke. The ideal stroke patient treatment is in the Stroke Unit which should be present in every major hospital. In the Stroke Unit, patients are treated in an integrated manner and for 24 hours are monitored for their vital circumstances and functions, so any problems and complications that occur can be dealt with immediately. Patient can get physiotherapy as needed. Special handling is usually done Carotid stenting.
The journey of various stroke diseases is perfectly restored, healed with mild / moderate / severe disability. The degree of disability varies depending; Speed of getting the patient to get treatment help, the location and extent of the stroke lesion, age at the time of stroke, recurrent stroke, and patient compliance for treatment, complicating factors such as DM disease, hypertension, heart, kidney, persistence to practice and moral support and adjustment family.
The purpose of rehabilitation to maintain or enhance physical, spiritual and social abilities can be done with; Physical therapy (physiotherapy), speech therapy, mental exercise, occupational therapy and provide aids. Exercise is done as early as possible to get optimal results.